Camel hair specifically refers to the fur from the body of a camel, but more generally refers to the fibre (and cloth) that may be made from either pure camel hair or a blend of camel hair and another fibre.
Camel hair has two components: guard hair and undercoat. Guard hair is the outer protective fur, which is coarse and inflexible and can be woven into haircloth. (Guard hair may be made softer and plusher by blending it with another fibre, especially wool.) The undercoat, which is shorter and finer than guard hair, is less protective but more insulating. It is very soft and frequently used in the making of textiles for coats.
Camel hair is collected from the Bactrian camel, which is found across Asia from eastern Turkey and China to Siberia. Significant supplier countries of camel hair include Mongolia, Tibet, Afghanistan, Iran, Russia, China, New Zealand and Australia.